My Grandmother immigrated via Perris Island; she told me that her family survived on Endive during the winters in pre-world war I Pennsylvania: the plants kept alive during the winter, even if snow fell on it. It will make you tough, it is TOUGH; so, chop it (as stated above). RICCIA PANCALIERI C. BIANCA Endive (RPCB) is not nearly as bitter as Heart Of Gold (HOG). TRICK: Roll leaves together, then chop at 90 degree angles, dehydrate below 115 degrees and it counts as RAW, adding live enzymes held in dehydrated suspension. BETTER to saute RIGHT after chopping, fresh-made garlic oil, then add to soups, braise with meats BEST: THROw A WHOLE EGG ON THE SAUTE, PUT A LID ON, TURN OFF HEAT AND COME BACK IN 5 MINUTES. ROLL into a roll-up, seam-side down - it seems like a Nori Sushi Roll, but it is reduced Endive. Honestly, your guests will ask what this mysterious green is.